Immunology Resources



Fundamentals of Flow Cytometry


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To help you with your experiments, we have developed a range of useful mini-reviews, educational summaries, and blogs.

You can access our antibody resources by clicking on the relevant sections.


These mini-reviews cover a range of research areas with a particular focus on Immunology.

An overview of B cells - from discovery to therapy

Mini-review on B cell history, development and activation as well as B cells as therapeutic targets. B cells are an integral part of the adaptive immune response. They represent a distinct lineage, with separate and unique functions from T cells.

CD3 antibody

Overview of the T cell marker CD3, including genes, function and clinical applications for the CD3 protein complex.

CD4+ T helper cell

This guide provides a snapshot of key information for the design and study of eight T helper subsets.

CD45 characterization and isoforms

Mini-review on the various isoforms of CD45 including their structure and function. CD45 is a type I transmembrane consisting of two intracellular phosphatase domains, a transmembrane domain and an extracellular domain.

Complement system

Mini-review on the complement system, each of its pathways and complement components involved. Includes a summary on C4d, a known marker of allograft rejection.

F4/80 antibody

Mini-review on rat anti-mouse F4/80 antibody (CI:A3-1), providing a technical overview about F4/80 antigen and antibody.

Macrophage polarization

Mini-review on human and mouse macrophage polarization, and an introduction into macrophage classification and function, including macrophage involvement in cancer.

Monocyte development, characterization and role in disease

This mini-review characterizes monocytes, providing an overview of their lineage, the classification of the various subsets of monocytes, their function and the role they play in diseases.

Natural Killer (NK) Cells

Mini-review about the natural killer (NK) cell family functions, receptors and cell development in mouse and human.

Neuroinflammation and Toll-like receptors

Mini-review discussing the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in neuroinflammation, explaining the TLR pathway, and the role of TLRs in brain cells.

T cell receptor activation, signaling, development and diversity.

Discover the role played  by T cell receptors (TCR) in cell-mediated immune defence. Initial descriptions of TCRs were made 30 years ago primarily through similarity with immunoglobulin DNA sequences.

The mucosal immune response in health and disease

The structure and regulation of mucosal homeostasis and how this relates to disease and potential immunotherapy.

The role of immune checkpoints in cancer and immunity

Function and mechanism of immune checkpoints in immune regulation and cancer immunotherapy.

Toll-like receptors (TLRs)

Mini-review about Toll-like receptors, detailing their role in innate immunity including their expression patterns.

Understanding immuno-oncology - the interplay between the immune system and cancer

Discover the mechanisms behind immunosurveillance, immunosuppression and cancer immunotherapy.

Understanding innate lymphoid cells - a diverse immune population

Mini-review on Innate lymphoid cells covering ILC development, characterization, function and role in disease and immunotherapy.

Understanding the eukaryotic cell cycle - a biological and experimental overview

Learn about eukaryotic cell cycle progression and regulation, cell proliferation assessments, and key cell proliferation biomarkers.

Educational summaries

Easy to follow immunology articles.

Innate immunity: TLR2 and TLR4

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are one of the key receptor families forming an initial line of defence against invading pathogens. They are pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) along with the mannose (CD206), NOD, and NALP receptors.

TREM-1 & TREM-2: Enhancing the innate immune response

TREM-1 stands for triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1. It belongs to the v-type immunoglobulin superfamily, and is considered to be an orphan immunoreceptor because its ligand has not yet been identified. The TREM-1 receptor is expressed on monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils...

CD209 (DC-Sign) – an immunomodulating pattern recognition receptor

CD209, originally called DC-SIGN (dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin), is a 45 kDa type-2 transmembrane protein that belongs to the group II C-type lectins.

Dectin-1: Defense against fungal pathogens

Dectin-1 is a 33 kDa type-2 transmembrane protein that is a member of the Group V non-classical C-type lectins. It is also known as the beta-glucan receptor (ßGR) and the C-type lectin domain family 7, member A (CLEC7A).

Blog - Lab Crunches

Designed like a lab book, this new platform has been specially curated to help early career researchers get ahead.

Tumors Sweet Success due to Macrophage Polarization

This blog discusses a recent study by Bohn et al. (2018) that highlights a mechanism that melanoma utilizes to subvert the immune response....

Manifestation of Ghosts Exacerbates Asthma

Krishnamoorthy et al. (2018) have identified enucleated neutrophil cell bodies, known as ‘ghosts’, as driving Th17 cell inflammation in severe asthma....

Th2A Cells — the Latest T Helper Cell Subset and its Role in Allergy

Th2A cells are a recently identified subset of T helper cells type 2 (Th2). This blog looks at the role of Th2A cells in allergy....

Inking the Immune System: How Macrophages Make Tattoos Last

Baranska et al. (2018) identify macrophage dynamics as being key to tattoos lasting. This blog examines why tattoos are so difficult to remove....

How good bacteria protect us from pathogenic infection

This blog describes studies demonstrating the beneficial role of commensal bacteria in treating microbial infections and antibiotic resistance....

How to identify major immune cell types by their CD marker expression

Learn how a new tool from Bio-Rad simplifies knowing what markers to use to identify certain immune cell types....

Macrophages, obesity and insulin resistance

This blog post describes the mechanisms by which macrophages induce insulin resistance in the obese state....

What do monocytes have to do with the heart?

This post describes the role of monocytes in heart disease and whether monocyte infiltration into the heart exacerbates disease or aids in its repair....

Monocyte-based cell therapy for treating diseases

This blog post discusses recent pre-clinical studies that suggest monocytes could be applied in a related manner to the treatment of diseases. ...

Immunological memory is no longer a unique trait of adaptive immune cells

The new finding of trained immunity challenges the basic tenets of immunology, blurring the line that separates innate and adaptive immunity....

Four virus serotypes…One Dengue vaccine?

Have a group of researchers really found the key to a cure to the currently incurable Dengue virus? Find out here......