Articles, Educational Summaries, Mini-reviews and Application Notes


To help you with your experiments, we have developed a range of useful mini-reviews, educational summaries and application notes.

This page displays all our antibody related technical and scientific resources. You can access our antibody resources by clicking on the relevant sections.

Educational Summaries

Immunoglobulins: classes and subclasses

Overview of the five antibody immunoglobulin classes (isotypes).

Affinity and avidity of antibodies

Antigen-antibody interactions, strength measured by affinity and avidity.

Binding affinities chart

A handy binding affinities chart to help determine your antibody purification method.

Innate immunity: TLR2 and TLR4

Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 (TLR2 and TLR4) structure and expression.

Dectin-1: Defense against fungal pathogens

Dectin-1 structure and function.

TREM-1 & TREM-2: Enhancing the innate immune response

TREM-1 and TREM-2 protein expression and function in innate immunity and the inflammatory response.

What is Ebola?

Article giving an overview of the Ebola virus, recent outbreaks and Ebola research for future outbreak prevention.


Immune aging and senescence

Mini-review on inflammaging and immune senescence.


Mini-review on pyroptosis, an inflammatory form of regulated cell death.

An overview of B cells - from discovery to therapy

Mini-review on B cell history, development and activation as well as B cells as therapeutic targets.

CD3 antibody

Overview of the T cell marker CD3, including genes, function and clinical applications for the CD3 protein complex.

Complement system

Mini-review on the complement system, each of its pathways and complement components involved. Includes a summary on C4d, a known marker of allograft rejection.

F4/80 antibody

Mini-review on rat anti-mouse F4/80 antibody (CI:A3-1), providing a technical overview about F4/80 antigen and antibody.

Macrophage polarization

Mini-review on human and mouse macrophage polarization, and an introduction into macrophage classification and function, including macrophage involvement in cancer.

Monocyte development, characterization and role in disease

This mini-review characterizes monocytes, providing an overview of their lineage, the classification of the various subsets of monocytes, their function and the role they play in diseases.

Neuroinflammation and Toll-like receptors

Mini-review discussing the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in neuroinflammation, explaining the TLR pathway, and the role of TLRs in brain cells.

NK cells

Mini-review about the natural killer (NK) cell family functions, receptors and cell development in mouse and human.

Toll-like receptors (TLRs)

Mini-review about Toll-like receptors, detailing their role in innate immunity including their expression patterns.

CD45 characterization and isoforms

Mini-review on the various isoforms of CD45 including their structure and function.

Understanding innate lymphoid cells - a diverse immune population

Mini-review on Innate lymphoid cells covering ILC development, characterization, function and role in disease and immunotherapy.

The mucosal immune response in health and disease

The structure and regulation of mucosal homeostasis and how this relates to disease and potential immunotherapy.

T cell receptor activation, signaling, development and diversity.

Discover the role played  by T cell receptors (TCR) in cell-mediated immune defence.

Understanding immuno-oncology - the interplay between the immune system and cancer

Discover the mechanisms behind immunosurveillance, immunosuppression and cancer immunotherapy.

The role of immune checkpoints in cancer and immunity

Function and mechanism of immune checkpoints in immune regulation and cancer immunotherapy.

Understanding the eukaryotic cell cycle - a biological and experimental overview

Learn about eukaryotic cell cycle progression and regulation, cell proliferation assessments, and key cell proliferation biomarkers.

CD4+ T helper cell

This guide provides a snapshot of key information for the design and study of eight T helper subsets.

Application Notes

Cytokines and bovine tuberculosis

Methods for cattle TB testing, including the use of cytokines as markers of immune protection.

Harnessing and directing the bovine innate immune system: The importance of TLRs

The importance and expression of the toll like receptor (TLR) family in the bovine innate immune system.

Identification of the immunological correlates of protection in ruminants

Summary of an Industrial Partnership Award (IPA) project funded by the BBSRC in conjunction with Bio-Rad.

Importance of chicken immunology research and studying host-pathogen interactions

Article describing the importance of researching chicken immune responses.

An accelerated approach to sensitive ADA assays

A faster route to selection of high-affinity recombinant antibodies, allowing development of sensitive assays for the monitoring of drug antibodies.

Effective tools for drug monitoring assays

Article describing how scientists validate recombinant monoclonal antibodies for PK and IR assays.

Monitoring antibody immune responses against biotherapeutic drugs

Article describing the challenges in antibody assay development and the special considerations required for monoclonal antibody drugs.

Recombinant antibodies as standards for immunodiagnostic assays

A method for development of standardization material for autoimmune assays measuring human autoantibodies.

High-affinity antibodies for peptide enrichment immuno-MRM

A study showing how recombinant antibodies against short peptides are generated for MS-based assays.

Biomarker assay development using highly specific recombinant antibodies

Development of an assay to discriminate between native and truncated CXCL10 chemokine using custom HuCAL® antibodies.

Isolation of enzyme active site-specific recombinant antibodies

Generation of antibodies to enzyme active site enabling inhibition experiments and structural studies.

Anti-Sheep IL-8/CXCL8

Application note describing protocols to achieve optimal ELISA, western blot, and flow cytometry results with Bio-Rad’s anti-sheep IL-8 antibody (MCA6013GA).

Generation of antibodies against self-antigens using HuCAL technology

HuCAL technology used to design an inhibitory chimeric antibody specific to MASP-2 for proof of concept drug discovery applications.