TREM-1 & TREM-2: Enhancing the Innate Immune Response

Follow us on:

Facebook X Linkedin YouTube Pinterest WeChat

Booklets and Posters:

 Booklets & Posters:

Find your cell specific markers using our mouse or human immune cell lineage and expression guide, posters and interactive database.

TREM stands for triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells. These proteins are cell surface receptors involved in innate immunity and the inflammatory response.

J774 cell stained with Rat Anti-Mouse TREM-1:Alexa Fluor®647 (MCA2578A647)

Fig. 1. J774 cell stained with Rat Anti-Mouse TREM-1:Alexa Fluor®647 (MCA2578A647).


TREM-1 (also known as CD354) belongs to the v-type immunoglobulin superfamily, and is considered to be an orphan immunoreceptor because its ligand has not yet been identified. The TREM-1 receptor is expressed on monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils.

While the full mechanism of TREM-1 action has not yet been elucidated, it is known to function as an amplifier of the host inflammatory response. It has been shown to act synergistically with pattern recognition receptors, such as the NOD-like receptor (NLR) and Toll-like receptor (TLR) families, leading to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. It has also been associated with the signal transduction molecule DAP12.

Expression of TREM-1 is upregulated after exposure to LPS and other microbial products, and as a result it is found at higher levels in areas of bacterial and fungal invasion. In clinical studies, soluble TREM-1 has been detected at high concentrations in blood and lung fluid samples from infected patients, indicating its potential use as a direct marker for infection.

TREM-1 Antibodies

Bio-Rad manufactures several antibodies specific to human and mouse TREM-1.

Anti-human TREM-1 (MCA4697, clone TREM-37) is available in a purified format for Western blotting, and flow cytometry. This clone is available in convenient 25 ug/25 test size.

Anti-mouse TREM-1 (MCA2578, clone L5-B8.2A12.3A12) has been conjugated to the traditional flow cytometry label FITC, and to high performance Alexa Fluor® 488 and Alexa Fluor® 647. This clone can also be obtained in a purified format in 0.1 mg and 0.25 mg sizes.


J774.2 cell stained with FITC conjugated Rat anti Mouse F4/80 (MCA497F) and Alexa Fluor 647 conjugated Rat anti Mouse TREM2 (MCA4772A647)

Fig. 2. J774.2 cell stained with FITC conjugated Rat anti Mouse F4/80 (MCA497F) and Alexa Fluor 647 conjugated Rat anti Mouse TREM2 (MCA4772A647)

Rat anti Mouse TREM-2 antibody, clone 78.18 recognizes triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM-2), an activating receptor of the Ig superfamily. TREM-2 forms a receptor signaling complex with DAP12 to trigger the activation of the immune response in macrophages and dendritic cells. It may be involved in chronic inflammation and may promote the production of constitutive rather than inflammatory chemokines and cytokines. TREM-2 may also have a functional role in osteoclast formation.

TREM-2 Antibody

Anti-mouse TREM-2 (MCA4772, clone TREM-37) is available in a purified format and conjugated to FITC, PE and Alexa647 for use in flow cytometry. This clone can also be obtained in a low endotoxin format for functional studies. Stimulation of TREM-2 with Rat anti Mouse Trem-2 antibody, clone 78.18 enhances multinucleated osteoclast formation in vitro. Visit MCA4772 for full product details.

TREM Antibodies

Our full range of TREM antibodies come in a variety of different formats and to a number of target species and can be used for applications including flow cytometry, western blotting, functional assay, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry.

Please use the filters in the table below in order to find the antibody that fits your exact requirements. If you need any further assistance please do not hesitate to contact us.

Our TREM Antibody Range

    DescriptionSpecificityTargetFormatHostIsotypeClone Applications Citations Product Type Code Validation Types

    Additional Reading

    1. Bouchon, A., et al. (2000) Cutting edge: inflammatory responses can be triggered by TREM-1, a novel receptor expressed on neutrophils and monocytes.
      J Immunol. 164:4991-4995
    2. Bouchon, A., et al. (2001) TREM-1 amplifies inflammation and is a crucial mediator of septic shock.
      Nature 410:1103-1107
    3. Klesney-Tait, J., et al. (2006) The TREM receptor family and signal integration.
      Nat Immunol. 7:1266-1273
    4. Humphrey, M.B. et al. (2006) TREM2, a DAP12-associated receptor, regulates osteoclast differentiation and function.
      J Bone Miner Res. 21 (2): 237-45
    5. Vilalta, A. et al. (2021) Wild-type sTREM2 blocks Aβ aggregation and neurotoxicity, but the Alzheimer's R47H mutant increases Aβ aggregation.
      J Biol Chem. 296:100631.