CD19 is a 95 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein containing two C2 type Ig-like domains in the N-terminal extracellular region and several potential phosphorylation sites for tyrosine together with a single serine in the cytoplasmic region. CD19 is also known as B-lymphocyte surface antigen B4. CD19 is expressed on virtually all B cells with the exception of plasma cells and is also found on follicular dendritic cells (de Rie et al. 1989).
CD19 has an essential regulatory role in B cell differentiation, proliferation and subsequent antibody production. Where CD19 forms a multimolecular complex with CD21, CD81 and MHC class II that binds to the B cell receptor (Horváth et al. 1998). When activated CD19 becomes phosphorylated, this then enables binding to Src family tyrosine kinases, to PI3 kinase and Vav, which then leads to the activation of signaling pathways involved in B cell stimulation (Buhl and Cambier 1999. Fujimoto et al. 2000. O’Rourke et al. 1998).
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