Primary antibodies can be monoclonal or polyclonal depending on how they are developed. A polyclonal antibody is derived from a collection of B cells and can recognize multiple epitopes on the same antigen. In contrast, a monoclonal antibody is produced from a single B cell and can recognize only one unique epitope.
Primary antibodies directly bind to specific antigens in a tissue or sample. They are useful for detecting, measuring and purifying proteins or biomolecules in applications such as ELISA, flow cytometry, western blotting or immunohistochemistry. Primary antibodies can also be conjugated to reporter enzymes or fluorophores to aid detection or quantification of the target proteins.
For research applications, primary antibodies are often used in combination with reagents and buffers. Bio-Rad offers over 11,000 high quality antibodies and reagents to help you achieve your research goals. Browse below by research area, application, product type or target species to find the right primary antibody or reagent for your experiment.