If your research requires you to generate dendritic cells, then Bio-Rad bovine dendritic cell growth kits can save you the time and effort of developing your own method and optimizing the individual reagents.

The kits contain biologically active recombinant Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF), supplied as a liquid and premixed at optimal concentrations to induce dendritic cell development from PBMC.

  • Guaranteed to generate dendritic cells from PBMC
  • Save time with premixed, ready to use active cytokines
  • Phenotype with a panel of species-specific antibodies
  Pack Size Product Code Protocol
Bovine Dendritic Cell Growth Kit 1ml

Bovine and Ovine Dendritic Cell Markers

Bovine and ovine dendritic cell (DC) antibodies are available from Bio-Rad to assist you with phenotypic characterization of DC derived from monocytes cultured with IL-4 and GM-CSF.

Specificity Clone Bovine Antibody
Product Code
Ovine Antibody
Product Code
CD1w2 (MHC Class 1-like molecule) CC20 MCA2058 MCA2058*
CD11b (myeloid cell marker) CC126 MCA1425 MCA1425*
CD14 (macrophage marker) CC-G33
CD28 (T cell co-stimulatory receptor) CC220
CD40 (receptor for co-stimulation of
B cells, cytokine production)
IL-A156 MCA2431 MCA2431*
CD80 (interacts with CD28 on T cells) IL-A159 MCA2436 MCA2436*
CD86 (interacts with CD28 on T cells) IL-A190 MCA2437 MCA2437*
CD172a (expressed by monocytes,
macrophages, and subsets of dendritic cells)
CC149 MCA2041 N/A
CD205 (expressed by subsets
of dendritic cells)
MHC class II DQ and DR (present on most APC)
clone CC158
clone CC108
clone 28.1
clone 37.68
clone 49.1

*Bovine antibody known to cross-react with ovine samples
**Human antibody known to cross-react with bovine and ovine samples

A combination of the presence and absence of various cell markers can be used for cell surface phenotyping of DCs. Selecting the most appropriate antibodies to go with your dendritic cell growth kit can be a challenge. View our suggested references below, or contact our technical experts for advice.

Generating Dendritic Cells from Monocytes

Dendritic cells (DC) are the only professional antigen presenting cells (APC) capable of effectively initiating a primary immune response in naïve animals. They are extremely versatile and have been widely used in research to advance our understanding of host-pathogen interactions, innate immunity and adaptive immunity.

Because dendritic cells are not prevalent in the blood stream, a model whereby DC are derived from monocytes by culture with cytokines is widely used for research purposes.

Monocytes present in cell culture are enriched by depleting the other cells. Cytokines are then added: Interleukin 4 (IL-4) to suppress monocyte development, and Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) to stimulate the transformation of monocytes to DC. This technique is commonly used to study DC from many species, including bovine, and canine. The progeny have a characteristic morphology and phenotype. DC do not express CD14 (a monocyte/macrophage marker) but have high levels of MHC molecules (HLA-ABC, DR, DQ, and DP), adhesins (CD54, CD58 and CDllc), and co-stimulatory molecules (CD40 and B7/CD80). The co-stimulatory molecules, CD80 and CD86, are up-regulated during DC activation.

To date, no single cell marker expressed exclusively on DC has been identified. Therefore a combination of the presence and absence of various cell markers can be used. DC can be identified using cell surface phenotyping by demonstrating a high level of MHC Class II or co-stimulatory molecule such as CD80 or CD86, and the absence of lineage markers, such as CD3 (T cell), CD14 (monocyte), CD19 (B cell), CD56 (NK cell) and CD66b (granulocyte).


  1. Chan, S. et al. (2002). Generation and characterization of ovine dendritic cells derived from peripheral blood monocytes.
    Immunology 107:366-72. [PMID:12423313
  2. Gliddon, D. et al. (2004). DEC-205 expression on migrating dendritic cells in afferent lymph.
    Immunology 111: 262–272. [PMCID: PMC1782417
  3. Lei, L. et al. (2007). Limited phenotypic and functional maturation of bovine monocyte-derived dendritic cells following Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in vitro.
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 120:177-86. [PMID:17686529
  4. Miyazawa K et al. (2006). Identification of bovine dendritic cell phenotype from bovine peripheral blood.
    Res Vet Sci. 81:40-5. [PMID:16253299
  5. Newland, A. et al. (2004). Ovine dendritic cells transduced with an adenoviral CTLA4eEGFP fusion protein construct induce hyporesponsiveness to allostimulation
    Immunology 113:310-7. [PMID:15500617
  6. Reid, E. et al. (2011). Bovine Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Are the Major Source of Type I Interferon in Response to Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus In Vitro and In Vivo.
    J Virol. 85:4297-308. [PMID:21307187
  7. Werling, D. et al. (1999). Involvement of caveolae in the uptake of respiratory syncytial virus antigen by dendritic cells.
    J Leukoc Biol. 66: 50-8. [PMID:10410989