Cytokines are regulatory proteins that act as intercellular communication signals in a variety of processes including tissue repair, stress, hematopoiesis, inflammation, immunity and embryonic development.
Current livestock research has focused on the role of cytokines in bacterial infections such as tuberculosis, brucellosis and mastitis, all of which have a significant impact on animal welfare and the farming economy worldwide
Cytokine assays are used to monitor disease progression and prognosis. A greater understanding of the inflammatory mediators involved will provide information for improvement of animal health and vaccine programs.
Each cytokine can be grouped according to its involvement in the inflammation process:
TNF-alpha and IL-1 are produced by macrophages following exposure to bacterial products. Their role is to act upon several cell types at the site of infection to stimulate the production of pro-inflammatory molecules that will act to increase vascular permeability. These two cytokines act in conjunction with IL-6 to regulate acute phase reactions.
The second wave of cytokines secreted, following infection, includes IL-2, IL-4, IL-5 and interferon (IFN) gamma. These cytokines are principally involved in the promotion of clonal expansion and differentiation of specific immune cells, as well as a refinement of the immune response.
We offer the following recombinant bovine cytokines to advance the knowledge of the cattle immune system.