Veterinary Cytokines – Interleukin 4

Detecting recombinant rabbit IL-4

Rabbit IL-4 ELISA

Interleukin 4

Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is a cytokine primarily secreted by Th2 cells, basophils, eosinophils, and mast cells. It plays an important role in downregulating Th1 mediated responses.

IL-4 exhibits sequence homology with IL-13 that results in receptor and intracellular signal cascade sharing. It is best known for its role as one of the cytokines that defines the Th2 phenotype in lymphocytes. Its key effects on the immune system are contributing to regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis. Further downstream functions are modulation of gene expression in macrophages, lymphocytes, fibroblasts, epithelial and endothelial cells. Th2 derived IL-4 upregulates the production of the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-10 in Th1 cells, which reduces the pathogenicity of Th1 cells.

Recent research underlines the importance of the immune function relevance of IL-4:

  • In in vitro studies, Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) infected cows have more IL-4 producing CD4+, CD8+, and gd+ T cells. The IL-4 spice variant, IL-4d3 plays a protective role in M. bovis infection
  • Research on S. Aureus vaccination, to prevent mastitis, used flow cytometry of CD4+ T cells and measurement of IL-4, along with IFN-g and IL-17, as a pathogen specific response assay
  • Bovine theileriosis was associated with increased levels of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10
  • Studies on calves vaccinated against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) used IL-4, along with IFN-g and CD25, as a marker of the T cell response to BVDV type 1 and type 2 recall antigens

Find our anti-IL-4 antibodies and associated protein controls for your Th2 immune response experiments listed below; links to experimental data and peer reviewed publications can be found on each datasheet.

Interleukin 4

    DescriptionSpecificityTargetFormatHostIsotypeClone Applications Citations Product Type Code

    Further Reading:

    • Nelms K et al. (1999). The IL-4 receptor: signaling mechanisms and biologic functions. Ann Rev Immunol 17, 701–738.
    • Callard RE et al. (1996). IL-4 and IL-13 receptors: are they one and the same? Immunology Today 17, 108–110.
    • Mitchell RE et al. (2017). IL-4 enhances IL-10 production in Th1 cells: implications for Th1 and Th2 regulation. Sci Rep 7, 11315-11329.​
    • Frie MC et al. (2017). Dairy Cows Naturally Infected with Bovine Leukemia Virus Exhibit Abnormal B- and T-Cell Phenotypes after Primary and Secondary Exposures to Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin. Front Vet Sci 4, 112.
    • Rhodes SG et al. (2007). Is Interleukin-4δ3 Splice Variant Expression in Bovine Tuberculosis a Marker of Protective Immunity? Infect Immun J 75(6), 3006-3013.​
    • LaPorte SL et al. (2008). Molecular and structural basis of cytokine receptor pleiotropy in the Interleukin-4/13 system. Cell 132(2), 259-272.
    • Platt R et al. (2017). Comparison of humoral and T-cell-mediated immune responses to a single dose of Bovela® live double deleted BVDV vaccine or to a field BVDV strain. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 187:20-27
    • Gupta A et al. (2017). Molecular and pathological studies on natural cases of bovine theileriosis. J Parasit Dis 41(1): 211–218
    • Misra N et al. (2018). Immunogenicity of a Staphylococcus aureus-cholera toxin A2/B vaccine for bovine mastitis. Vaccine [Epub ahead of print]