CD68 is a 110-kDa glycoprotein, being classified as a member of the scavenger receptor family, whose typical functions include clearance of cellular debris, promotion of phagocytosis, and the mediation, recruitment and activation of macrophages. CD68 is also a member of the lysosome associated membrane protein (LAMP) family, where CD68 predominantly localizes to lysosomes and endosomes with a smaller fraction circulating to the cell surface.

CD68 is highly expressed by monocytes and tissue macrophages, including Kupffer cells, microglia, histiocytes and osteoclasts, and to a lesser extent on dendritic cells and peripheral blood granulocytes. However CD68 expression is not unique to myeloid cells, it can also be found on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells, and on carcinomas and melanomas especially in tumor stroma cells such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. CD68 should perhaps be regarded as a phagocytic marker and used alongside other markers to define a cell type.

A flow cytometry protocol is available that provides detailed procedures for the treatment and staining of this intracellular marker.

CD68 antibodies at a glance

Most popular CD68 antibody options at a glance, click here to view all CD68 antibodies.

Target Clone Application Format
Human Y1/81A  Flow cytometry RPE
Human KP1 Flow cytometry FITC
Human 514H12 IHC Supernatant
Human Ki-M7  Flow cytometry FITC
Mouse FA-11 Flow cytometry Alexa Fluor dyes
Rat ED1 IHC Biotin

Explore CD68 antibody images by application

Other related macrophage markers by species reactivity

In addition to CD68, Bio-Rad also offers a wide range of other macrophage markers such as:

Anti-Mouse Antibodies

Anti-Human Antibodies

Anti-Rat Antibodies


Anti-rat CD68

  • Bao F et al. (2004). Early anti-inflammatory treatment reduces lipid peroxidation and protein nitration after spinal cord injury in rats.
    J. Neuro-chem. 88:1335-1344.
  • Zilka N et al. (2009). Human misfolded truncated tau protein promotes activation of microglia and leukocyte infiltration in the transgenic rat model of tauopathy.
    J. Neuroimmunol. 209: 16-25.
  • Machelska H et al. (2013). Selectins and integrins but not platelet–endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 regulate opioid inhibition of inflammatory pain.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 142:772-780.

Anti-human CD68

Anti-mouse CD68

  • Smith M and Koch G. (1987). Differential expression of murine macrophage surface glycoprotein antigens in intracellular membranes.
    J. Cell Sci. 87:113-9.
  • Holness CL et al. (1993). Macrosialin, a mouse macrophage-restricted glycoprotein, is a member of the lamp/lgp family.
    J.Biol Chem. 268(13):9661-6.
  • Da Silva RP and Gordon S. (1999). Phagocytosis stimulates alternative glycosylation of macrosialin (mouse CD68), a macrophage-specific endosomal protein.
    Biochem. J. 338: 687-694.

View all anti-CD68 references.