Listed below is a selection of references for CD68 antibodies, focusing on target species of human, mouse and rat. The references are organized chronologically by species and provide information about detailed methods, uses and advantages of our CD68 antibodies. Further references can be found on CiteAb, where over 400 references can be found.

Anti-Human CD68 Antibodies

  • Kreipe H et al. (1987). Ki-M7 Monoclonal Antibody Specific for Myelomonocytic Cell Lineage and Macrophages in Human.
    J. Histochem. Cytochem. 35: 1117-1126.
  • Micklem K et al. (1989). A human macrophage-associated antigen (CD68) detected by six different monoclonal antibodies.
    Brit. J. Haem 73: 6-11.
  • Pulford KA et al. (1989). KP1: a new monoclonal antibody that detects a monocyte/macrophage associated antigen in routinely processed tissue sections.
    J. Clin. Pathol. 42: 414 - 421.
  • Holness CL and Simmons DL. (1993) Molecular cloning of CD68,human macrophage marker related to lysosomal glycoproteins.
    Blood. 81(6):1607-13.
  • Hameed A et al. (1994). Immunohistochemical expression of CD68 antigen in human peripheral blood T cells.
    Hum. Pathol. 25: 872-876.
  • Diop OM et al. (2000). High Levels of Viral Replication during Primary Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVagm Infection Are Rapidly and Strongly Controlled in African Green Monkeys.
    J. Virology 74: 7538-7547.
  • Da Costa CE et al. (2005). Presence of osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells in the bone and nonostoticlesions of Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
    J. Exp. Med. 201: 687-93.
  • Paulmyer-Lacroix O et al. (2006). Expression of adrenomedullin in adipose tissue of lean and obese women.
    Eur. J. Endocrinol. 155: 177-85.
  • Rodriguez-Agudo D et al. (2006). Localization of StarD5 cholesterol binding protein.
    J. Lipid Res. 47: 1168-75.
  • Wang X et al. (2006). Monocyte/macrophage and T-cell infiltrates in peritoneum of patients with ovarian cancer or benign pelvic disease.
    J. Transl. Med. 4: 30.
  • Achard V et al. (2007) Renin receptor expression in human adipose tissue.
    Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 292: R274-82.
  • Angel, CE et al. (2007). CD14+ antigen-presenting cells in human dermis are less mature than their CD1a+ counterparts.
    Int. Immunol. 19: 1271-9.
  • Hever A et al. (2007). Human endometriosis is associated with plasma cells and overexpression of B lymphocyte stimulator.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A. 104: 12451-6.
  • Silaghi A et al. (2007). Expression of adrenomedullin in human epicardial adipose tissue: role of coronary status.
    Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 293: E1443-50.
  • Coury F et al. (2008). Langerhans cell histiocytosis reveals a new IL-17A-dependent pathway of dendritic cell fusion.
    Nat Med. 14: 81-7.
  • Gottfried E et al. (2008). Expression of CD68 in non-myeloid cell types.
    Scand. J. Immunol. 67: 453-63.
  • Kaibara N et al. (2008) Comparative histopathological analysis between tenosynovitis and joint synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis.
    Histopathology. 52: 856-64.
  • Karlsson, KR et al.(2008). Homogeneous monocytes and macrophages from human embryonic stem cells following coculture-free differentiation in M-CSF and IL-3.
    Exp. Hematol. 36: 1167-1175.
  • Moskovszky L et al. (2009). Genomic instability in giant cell tumor of bone. A study of 52 cases using DNA ploidy, relocalization FISH, and array-CGH analysis.
    Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 48: 468-79.
  • Sakakibara S et al. (2009). Gene regulation and functional alterations induced by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded ORFK13/vFLIP in endothelial cells.
    J. Virol. 83: 2140-53.
  • Bendelja K et al. (2010). Decreased Toll-like receptor 8 expression and lower TNF-alpha synthesis in infants with acute RSV infection.
    Respir. Res. 11: 143.
  • Madden LR et al. (2010). Proangiogenic scaffolds as functional templates for cardiac tissue engineering.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A. 107(34):15211-6.
  • Muthana M et al. (2011). Use of Macrophages to Target Therapeutic Adenovirus to Human Prostate Tumors.
    Cancer Res. 71(5):1805-15.
  • Vergo S et al. (2011). Acid-sensing ion channel 1 is involved in both axonal injury and demyelination in multiple sclerosis and its animal model.
    Brain. 134: 571-584.

Anti-Mouse CD68 Antibodies

  • Smith M and Koch G. (1987). Differential expression of murine macrophage surface glycoprotein antigens in intracellular membranes.
    J. Cell Sci. 87:113-9.
  • Rabinowitz SS and Gordon S. (1991). Macrosialin, a macrophage-restricted membrane sialoprotein differentially glycosylated in response to inflammatory stimuli.
    J. Exp. Med. 174: 827-836.
  • Holness CL et al. (1993). Macrosialin, a mouse macrophage-restricted glycoprotein, is a member of the lamp/lgp family.
    J. Biol. Chem. 268(13):9661-6.
  • Ramprasad MP et al. (1996). Cell surface expression of mouse macrosialin and human CD68 and their role as macrophage receptors for oxidized low density lipoprotein.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 93: 14833-14838.
  • Kassim S et al. (2010). Gene therapy in a humanized mouse model of familial hypercholesterolemia leads to marked regression of atherosclerosis.
    PloS ONE 5: e13424.
  • Da Silva RP and Gordon S. (1999). Phagocytosis stimulates alternative glycosylation of macrosialin (mouse CD68), a macrophage-specific endosomal protein.
    Biochem. J. 338: 687-694.
  • De Beer MC et al. (2003). Lack of a direct role for macrosialin in oxidized LDL metabolism.
    J. Lipid Res. 44: 674-85.
  • Masaki T et al. (2003). Heterogeneity of antigen expression explains controversy over glomerular macrophage accumulation in mouse glomerulonephritis.
    Nephrol. Dial. Transplant 18:178-81.
  • Schleicher U et al. (2005). Minute numbers of contaminant CD8+ T cells or CD11b+CD11c+ NK cells are the source of IFN-{gamma} in IL-12/IL-18-stimulated mouse macrophage populations.
    Blood 105: 1319-1328.
  • Martin-Manso G et al. (2008). Thrombospondin 1 promotes tumor macrophage recruitment and enhances tumor cell cytotoxicity of differentiated U937 cells.
    Cancer Res. 68: 7090-9.
  • Devey L et al.(2009). Tissue-resident macrophages protect the liver from ischemia reperfusion injury via a heme oxygenase-1-dependent mechanism.
    Mol. Ther. 17: 65-72.
  • Hemmi H et al. (2009). A new triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (Trem) family member, Trem-like 4, binds to dead cells and is a DNAX activation protein 12-linked marker for subsets of mouse macrophages and dendritic cells.
    J. Immunol. 182: 1278-86.
  • Jayagopal A et al. (2009). Quantum dot mediated imaging of atherosclerosis.
    Nanotechnology. 20: 165102.
  • Leung VW et al. (2009). Decay-accelerating factor suppresses complement C3 activation and retards atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice.
    Am. J. Pathol. 175: 1757-67.
  • Lu W et al. (2010). Photoacoustic imaging of living mouse brain vasculature using hollow gold nanospheres.
    Biomaterials. 31: 2617-26.
  • West EL et al. (2010). Long-term survival of photoreceptors transplanted into the adult murine neural retina requires immune modulation.
    Stem Cells. 28: 1997-2007.
  • Ashley JW et al. (2011). Genetic ablation of CD68 results in mice with increased bone and dysfunctional osteoclasts.
    PLoS One. 2011; 6(10):e25838
  • Daldrup-Link HE et al. (2011). MR Imaging of Tumor Associated Macrophages with Clinically-Applicable Iron Oxide Nanoparticles.
    Clin. Cancer Res. 17: 5695-704.
  • Frossard JL et al. (2011). Role of CCL-2, CCR-2 and CCR-4 in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis and pancreatitis-associated lung injury.
    J. Clin. Pathol. 64: 387-93.
  • Lopez ME et al. (2011). Anatomically defined neuron-based rescue of neurodegenerative niemann-pick type C disorder.
    J. Neurosci. 31: 4367-78.
  • Macauley SL et al. (2011). The Role of Attenuated Astrocyte Activation in Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis.
    J. Neurosci. 31: 15575-85.
  • Rahaman SO et al. (2011). Vav family Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors regulate CD36-mediated macrophage foam cell formation.
    J. Biol. Chem. 286: 7010-7.
  • Song L et al. (2011). Deletion of the murine scavenger receptor CD68.
    J. Lipid Res. 52: 1542-50.
  • Akbarshahi H et al.(2012). Enrichment of Murine CD68(+)CCR2(+) and CD68(+)CD206(+) Lung Macrophages in Acute Pancreatitis-Associated Acute Lung Injury.
    PLoS One. 7: e42654.
  • Lazarini F et al. (2012). Early Activation of Microglia Triggers Long-Lasting Impairment of Adult Neurogenesis in the Olfactory Bulb.
    J. Neurosci. 32: 3652-64
  • Dormishian M et al.(2013). Prokineticin Receptor-1 Is a New Regulator of Endothelial Insulin Uptake and Capillary Formation to Control Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular and Kidney Functions.
    J. Am. Heart Assoc. 2013; 2: e000411.
  • Choi EJ et al. (2014). Novel brain arteriovenous malformation mouse models for type 1 hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.
    PLoS One. 9(2): e88511.

Anti-Rat CD68 Antibodies

  • Dijkstra CD et al. (1985). The heterogeneity of mononuclear phagocytes in lymphoid organs: distinct macrophage subpopulations in the rat recognised by monoclonal antibodies ED1, ED2 and ED3.
    Immunol. 54: 589-599.
  • Bauer J et al. (1994). Phagocytic activity of macrophages and microglial cells during the course of Acute and Chronic Relapsing Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.
    J. Neurosci. Res. 38: 365-375.
  • Damoiseaux JG et al. (1994). Rat macrophage lysosomal membrane antigen recognised by monoclonal antibody ED1.
    Immunol. 83: 140-147.
  • Bao F et al. (2004). Early anti-inflammatory treatment reduces lipid peroxidation and protein nitration after spinal cord injury in rats.
    J. Neuro-chem. 88:1335-1344.
  • Zilka N et al. (2009). Human misfolded truncated tau protein promotes activation of microglia and leukocyte infiltration in the transgenic rat model of tauopathy.
    J. Neuroimmunol. 209: 16-25.
  • Bedi A et al.(2010). Effect of early and delayed mechanical loading on tendon-to-bone healing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
    J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 92: 2387-401.
  • Fujita E et al. (2010). Statin Attenuates Experimental Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Glomerulonephritis Together with the Augmentation of Alternatively Activated Macrophages.
    Am. J. Pathol. 177(3):1143-54.
  • Matsuda K et al. (2010) Hemophagocytic histiocytic sarcoma in a Japanese black cow.
    Vet Pathol. 47: 339-42.
  • Quan LD et al. (2010). Development of a macromolecular prodrug for the treatment of inflammatory arthritis: mechanisms involved in arthrotropism and sustained therapeutic efficacy.
    Arthritis Res. Ther. 12: R170.
  • Baker SC et al.(2011). Cellular Integration and Vascularisation Promoted by a Resorbable, Particulate-Leached, Cross-Linked Poly(e-caprolactone) Scaffold.
    Macromol. Biosci. doi: 10.1002/mabi.201000415.
  • Naito Y et al. (2011). Dietary iron restriction prevents hypertensive cardiovascular remodeling in dahlsalt-sensitive rats.
    Hypertension. 57: 497-504.
  • Salegio EA et al. (2011). Macrophage presence is essential for the regeneration of ascending afferent fibres following a conditioning sciatic nerve lesion in adult rats.
    B.M.C. Neurosci. 12:11. [Epub].
  • Chiu TL et al.(2012). The treatment of glioblastoma multiforme through activation of microglia and TRAIL induced by rAAV2-mediated IL-12 in a syngeneic rat model.
    J. Biomed. Sci. 19: 45.
  • Glorie LL et al. (2012) DPP4 inhibition improves functional outcome after renal ischemia-reperfusion injury.
    Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 303: F681-8.
  • Liew H.K. et al. (2012). Systemic administration of urocortin after intracerebral hemorrhage reduces neurological deficits and neuroinflammation in rats.
    J Neuroinflammation. 9: 13.
  • Peng JH et al. (2012). Effects of Puerariae Radix Extract on Endotoxin Receptors and TNF-a Expression Induced by Gut-Derived Endotoxin in Chronic Alcoholic Liver Injury.
    Evid. Based Complement Alternat. Med. 2012: 234987.
  • Chang C et al. (2013). Docosahexaenoic acid reduces cellular inflammatory response following permanent focal cerebral ischemia in rats.
    The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 24:12 2127–2137.
  • Dort J et al. (2013). Beneficial Effects of Cod Protein on Inflammatory Cell Accumulation in Rat Skeletal Muscle after Injury Are Driven by Its High Levels of Arginine, Glycine, Taurine and Lysine.
    PLoS One. 8: e77274.
  • Kim Y et al. (2014). Enhancement of bone regeneration by dual release of a macrophage recruitment agent and platelet-rich plasma from gelatin hydrogels.
    Biomaterials. 35:1 214–224.
  • Machelska H et al. (2013). Selectins and integrins but not platelet–endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 regulate opioid inhibition of inflammatory pain.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 142:772-780.
  • Sakuraya K et al. (2013). The synergistic effect of mizoribine and a direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren, on unilateral ureteral obstruction-induced renal fibrosis in rats.
    The Journal of Urology. 191:4 1139–1146.
  • Tian YF et al. (2013). Lipoic acid suppresses portal endotoxemia-induced steatohepatitis and pancreatic inflammation in rats.
    World J Gastroenterol. 19: 2761-71.
  • Wang-Rosenke Y et al. (2013). Tyrosine kinases inhibition by Imatinib slows progression in chronic anti-thy1 glomerulosclerosis of the rat.
    BMC Nephrology 14: 223.
  • Xiang Y et al. (2013). L-Carnitine Protects Against Cyclosporine-Induced Pancreatic and Renal Injury in Rats.
    Transplantation Proceedings. 45: 3127-34,
  • Xu X et al. (2014). Aging aggravates long-term renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat model.
    Journal of Surgical Research 187:1 289–296
  • Wei X et al. (2014). Dural fibroblasts play a potential role in headache pathophysiology.
    Pain. 155: 1238-44.

Other related macrophage markers by species reactivity

In addition to CD68, Bio-Rad also offers a wide range of other macrophage markers such as:

Anti-Mouse Antibodies

Anti-Human Antibodies

Anti-Rat Antibodies