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Fig.1. Dot-plot showing Ramos Cells staining with Annexin V-FITC versus Propidium lodide .
Bio-Rad offers a quick and easy method for detecting apoptotic cells by flow cytometry with the Annexin V apoptosis kits.
Labeled annexin V, included in the kits, has been conjugated such that the native phospholipid binding properties of annexin V remain unaltered.
Caspases are cysteine proteases that can cleave other proteins, and upon activation, create a positive-feedback cascade, which ensures the cell will undergo apoptosis.
Our Caspase FLICA™ Apoptosis Detection Kits allow analysis of active caspases in whole, living cells. Their methodology is based on a unique cell-permeable and non-cytotoxic reagent called the Fluorochrome Inhibitor of Caspases (FLICA). The reagent contains a caspase inhibitor sequence (such as VAD) linked to a green (carboxyfluorescein, FAM) or red (sulforhodamine, SR) fluorescent probe.
Bio-Rad offers four types of Caspase FLICA™ Kit; FAM FLICA that fluoresces at 525 nm (green), SR FLICA which fluoresces at 590 nm (red), Magic Red FLICA which fluoresces at 628 nm (red) and FLICA 660 which fluoresces at 690 nm (far red). SR FLICA and FLICA 660 are useful for studying caspase activity in GFP-transfected cell lines and for multi-color experiments with other green reagents.
The JC-1, TMRE and TMRM MitoPT™ Kits allow clear differentiation between non-apoptotic and apoptotic cells through the simple and reproducible detection of the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition event.
An early indication of apoptosis involves a collapse in the electrochemical gradient across the mitochondrial membrane.
This is mediated by the opening of permeability transition (PT) pores and is known as the mitochondrial PT event. It is measured by the change in the mitochondrial membrane potential.
We offer Magic Red™ Kits for analysis of active cathepsins in whole, living cells, utilizing a substrate based assay. These kits enable the detection of active cathepsins contained in lysosomes which are involved in the autophagy pathway, phagocytosis and when released into the cytoplasm can regulate both the apoptosis extrinsic and intrinsic pathways.
The cathepsin family comprises several proteolytic enzymes stored in cellular organelles called lysosomes. A key cellular pathway involving lysosomes is Autophagy, the process of cellular self-digestion, where cathepsins hydrolyze and degrade cytoplasmic proteins, bulk cytoplasm, and dysfunctional organelles for recycling.
Visualize apoptosis events in real time with our pSIVA™ Real-Time Apoptosis Fluorescent Microscopy and Flow Cytometry Kits. pSIVA only fluoresces when bound to phosphatidylserine (PS), which becomes exposed at the outer plasma membrane as one of the early events of apoptosis.
The pSIVA probe is conjugated to IANBD, a green emitting dye with spectral properties similar to FITC. No washing steps are required; simply add the probe to your cells and start visualizing apoptosis in real time.
The pSIVA Real-Time Apoptosis Fluorescent Microscopy and Flow Cytometry Kits also contain the viability dye propidium iodide, allowing you to distinguish early apoptotic from late apoptotic and necrotic cells.