Antibodies for the analysis of Phosphatases
Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) was used for over 50 years for the diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer.
During a phosphorylation reaction, a member of the kinase protein family adds a phosphate group to a serine, threonine or tyrosine residue of a target protein. This process can be reversed by another group of enzymes called phosphatases. Like kinases, phosphatases are grouped according to whether they de-phosphorylate tyrosine or serine/threonine residues. While all tyrosine phosphatases belong to the PTP (protein tyrosine phosphatase) family, two types of serine/threonine phosphatases exist (Mg2+-dependent PPM and PPP type phosphatases).
Signaling of individual kinases, such as GSK3, can be inhibited with the help of specific kinase inhibitors (Cohen and Goedert 2004). Many kinase inhibitors have been successfully used for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. When searching for the optimal kinase inhibitor for your experiment, we recommend you consult dedicated websites, such as the "Kinase Inhibitor Database" hosted on the website of the “International Centre for Kinase Profiling. In contrast to kinase inhibitors, phosphatase inhibitors such as okadaic acid and microcystin act rather broadly by inhibiting entire phosphatase families. Due to this, phosphatases have been relatively neglected as potential therapeutic targets, although many are known biomarkers. For example, prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) was one of the first identified tumor markers and used in clinical diagnostics for over 50 years for prostate cancer screening and staging (Mayo Clinic). It was replaced as the marker of choice in the 1980s by serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) (Taira et al. 2007).
Bio-Rad offers a variety of antibodies for analyzing phosphatase levels by ELISA, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry and Western Blotting.
Cohen P and Goedert M (2004). GSK3 inhibitors: development and therapeutic potential. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 3, 479-487.
Mayo Clinic. Interpretive Handbook Test 8019: Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP), Serum Clinical Information. http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/interpretive-guide/?alpha=P&unit_code=8019, accessed July 30, 2015.
Taira A et al. (2007). Reviving the acid phosphatase test for prostate cancer. Oncology (Williston Park). Jul;21(8):1003-10.
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