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Antibodies and recombinant proteins
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) play a key role in the innate immune response by recognizing conserved pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) which are unique to each pathogen, and are essential molecular structures required for the pathogens survival. PRRs can identify a diverse collection of microbial pathogens, which include: bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi, and protozoa. PRRs are primarily expressed by antigen presenting macrophage and dendritic cells but can also be expressed by other cells (both immune and non-immune cells). The PRRs are either localized on the cell surface to detect extracellular pathogens or within the endosomes and cellular matrix where they detect intracellular invading viruses. They are involved in activating pro-inflammatory signaling pathways, stimulating phagocytic responses (macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells) or binding to micro-organisms as secreted proteins.
In addition to the activation of immune cells upon recognition of PAMPs and DAMPs, PRRs trigger cell death mechanisms that result in the breakdown and ultimately death of a cell, leading to further release of DAMPs. Click here to read more about which specific cell death mechanisms are induced and the markers involved that can be used to identify this process.
PRRs can be classified in a number of ways such as by function (e.g. signaling or endocytic) or by localization. Here we have classified the PRRs by localization and functional types:
Bio-Rad offers a large range of antibodies to these main types of pattern recognition receptors and to their signaling and effector molecules. Browse our range below.