The initiation of adaptive immune responses is driven by signals from the innate immune system, where identification and transition is modulated by a range of intra and extracellular molecules known as pattern recognition receptors. The best know examples of these molecules are the Toll-like receptors and the NOD-like receptors (NLRs), both of which detect a variety of non-self motifs displayed by pathogenic organisms. NLRs also recognize the products of cellular injury. The NLRs carry out their role in the immune system through the action of inflammasomes.
An inflammasome is a group of proteins that come together to produce a molecular platform which regulates and activates the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. To date, two of these complexes have been described: NALP1 and NALP2/3. The NALP1 inflammasome is formed by NALP1, the adaptor protein ASC, and pro-caspases 1 and 5. The NALP3 inflammasome, is comprised of NALP3, ASC, pro-caspase 1, and the caspase recruitment domain (CARD) - containing protein Cardinal.
During the formation of an inflammasome, the association of NALP and ASC brings about the binding of the pro-caspases and their resulting activation. The caspases then regulate the cleavage and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin IL-1 beta, IL-18, and IL-33, which modulate the immune response.
Bio-Rad manufactures several monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies that can be used to study the inflammasome as shown in the table below. In addition, we offer a wide array of anti human IL-1 beta antibodies and recombinant proteins.