Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a central element in the innate immune response and one of the key factors involved in recognizing and defending against invading pathogens. They are transmembrane receptors that can be localized either to the cell surface or to endosomal vesicles, and belong to the pattern recognition receptor (PRR) family along with the mannose (CD206), NOD, and NALP receptors. Since they are involved in self- vs. non-self identification, they are also thought to be involved in autoimmune disease.
Initially identified in Drosophila, there are currently 13 known homologs of Toll, 10 of which are expressed in mammals. TLRs can be found either as individual transmembrane units, or in pairs and along with a range of accessory signaling molecules. Most TLR signaling occurs through a TIR domain-containing adaptor, such as MyD88, TRIF, and TRAM. Downstream signaling regulates inflammatory cytokine production and co-stimulatory receptor expression via the NF-kappaB pathway.
Bio-Rad offers an extensive range of antibodies against TLRs, including antibodies directed against proteins in the TLR signaling cascade.