CD28 antibody | YTH913.12

Rat anti Human CD28:RPE

Product Type
Monoclonal Antibody
Clone
YTH913.12
Isotype
IgG2b
Specificity
CD28

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MCA709PE
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Rat anti Human CD28 antibody, clone YTH913.12 recognizes human CD28, a ~44 kDa single pass type 1 trans-membrane protein expressed as a homodimer on a major subset of human T-cells (Thompson et al. 1989), responsible for activation of these cells via interaction with the TCR. CD28 is involved in the tuning of the T-cell for activation via TCR, lowering the threshold for activation from around 8000 triggered TCRs to approximately 1500 (Viola et al.1996).

CD28 along with CD152, also known as CTLA-4 acts as a co-receptor for the co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 (Azuma et al. 1993). CD28 offers a positive stimulatory role on ligation of CD80 and CD86 while CTLA-4 offers a negative feedback signal preventing CD28 mediated T-cell activation of CD86 (Krummel et al. 1995).

Rat anti human CD28, clone YTH913.12 has been reported to recognize an epitope of CD28 expressed by NK cells, which is not recognized by other anti human CD28 clones such as 9.3 and CD28.2 (Galea-Lauri et al 1999.) Other reports however have failed to demonstrate CD28 staining on peripheral blood derived NK cells using clone YTH913.12 (Wilson et al. 1999).

Target Species
Human
Product Form
Purified IgG conjugated to R. Phycoerythrin (RPE) - lyophilized
Reconstitution
Reconstitute with 1 ml distilled water
Preparation
Purified IgG prepared by affinity chromatography on Protein G from tissue culture supernatant
Buffer Solution
Phosphate buffered saline
Preservative Stabilisers
0.09%Sodium Azide
1%Bovine Serum Albumin
5%Sucrose
Immunogen
Human peripheral blood T-cells
Fusion Partners
Spleen cells from an immunised DA rat were fused with cells of the Y3/Ag 1.2.3 rat myeloma cell line
Max Ex/Em
Fluorophore Excitation Max (nm) Emission Max (nm)
RPE 488nm laser 496 578
Regulatory
For research purposes only
Guarantee
12 months from date of despatch

Prior to reconstitution store at +4oC. Following reconstitution store at +4oC.

DO NOT FREEZE.

This product should be stored undiluted. This product is photosensitive and should be protected from light. Should this product contain a precipitate we recommend microcentrifugation before use.

This product has been reported to work in the following applications. This information is derived from testing within our laboratories, peer-reviewed publications or personal communications from the originators. Please refer to references indicated for further information. For general protocol recommendations, please visit the antibody protocols page.
Application Name Verified Min Dilution Max Dilution
Flow Cytometry Neat
Where this antibody has not been tested for use in a particular technique this does not necessarily exclude its use in such procedures. Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrates the antibody for use in their own system using appropriate negative/positive controls.
Flow Cytometry
Use 10ul of the suggested working dilution to label 106 cells or 100ul human whole blood.

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Description Product Code Applications Pack Size List Price Your Price Quantity
Rat IgG2b Negative Control:RPE MCA6006PE F 100 Tests loader
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Description Rat IgG2b Negative Control:RPE

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References for CD28 antibody

  1. Reiter, C. (1989) Cluster Report: CD28 in Leucocyte Typing IV: White Cell Differentiation Antigens. Edited by Knapp, W., Dorken, B., Gilks, W.R., Rieber, E.P., Schmidt, R.E., Stein, H. and von dem Borne, A.E.G.Kr.
    Oxford University Press. pp 352-3.
  2. Galea-Lauri, J. et al. (1999) Expression of a variant of CD28 on a subpopulation of human NK cells: implications for B7-mediated stimulation of NK cells.
    J Immunol. 163 (1): 62-70.
  3. Gabdoulkhakova, A. et al. (2007) High rate of mutation reporter gene inactivation during human T cell proliferation.
    Immunogenetics. 59: 135-43.
  4. Pridgeon, C. et al. (2011) Regulation of IL-17 in chronic inflammation in the human lung.
    Clin Sci (Lond). 120: 515-24.
  5. Blanco, B. et al. (2003) Induction of human T lymphocyte cytotoxicity and inhibition of tumor growth by tumor-specific diabody-based molecules secreted from gene-modified bystander cells.
    J Immunol. 171: 1070-7.
  6. Costa, C. et al. (2002) Human NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity triggered by CD86 and Gal alpha 1,3-Gal is inhibited in genetically modified porcine cells.
    J Immunol. 168: 3808-16.
  7. Litjens, N.H. et al. (2011) Identification of Circulating Human Antigen-Reactive CD4+FOXP3+ Natural Regulatory T Cells.
    J Immunol. 188: 1083-90.
  8. Goodier, M.R. and Londei, M. (2004) CD28 is not directly involved in the response of human CD3- CD56+ natural killer cells to lipopolysaccharide: a role for T cells.
    Immunology. 111: 384-90.
  9. View The Latest Product References
  10. Wilson, J.L. et al. (1999) NK cell triggering by the human costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86.
    J Immunol. 163: 4207-12.
  11. Kropf, P. et al. (2007) Arginase activity mediates reversible T cell hyporesponsiveness in human pregnancy.
    Eur J Immunol. 37: 935-45.
  12. Ponchel, F. et al. (2002) Dysregulated lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
    Blood. 100: 4550-6.
  13. McLeod, J.D. et al. (1998) Activation of human T cells with superantigen (staphylococcal enterotoxin B) and CD28 confers resistance to apoptosis via CD95.
    J Immunol. 160: 2072-9.
  14. Svensson-Arvelund, J. et al. (2015) The human fetal placenta promotes tolerance against the semiallogeneic fetus by inducing regulatory T cells and homeostatic M2 macrophages.
    J Immunol. 194 (4): 1534-44.
  15. Hasib, L. et al. (2016) Functional and homeostatic defects of regulatory T cells in patients with coronary artery disease.
    J Intern Med. 279 (1): 63-77.
  16. Siska, E.K. et al. (2017) Generation of an immortalized mesenchymal stem cell line producing a secreted biosensor protein for glucose monitoring.
    PLoS One. 12 (9): e0185498.
  17. Hellberg, S. et al. (2021) Progesterone Dampens Immune Responses in In Vitro Activated CD4+ T Cells and Affects Genes Associated With Autoimmune Diseases That Improve During Pregnancy.
    Front Immunol. 12: 672168.

Flow Cytometry

Functional Assays

RRID
AB_321559
UniProt
P10747
Entrez Gene
CD28
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Please Note: All Products are "FOR RESEARCH PURPOSES ONLY"

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