Biomarker expression patterns in Bovine, Canine, Porcine and Avian.Download or request a copy now
Canine distemper virus (CDV), along with human measles virus (HMV) and rinderpest virus (RPV) of cattle, is part of the paramyxovirinae family, genus Morbillivirus. CDV is highly infective with a worldwide distribution and apart from dogs, it can infect wild canids such as coyotes, foxes, and wolves as well as racoons, ferrets, and large wild cats. No specific treatment for CDV exists, the vaccination of dogs is the key containment strategy. CDV infection in dogs and ferrets has been used as a model to study measles virus infection.
The CDV particles are spherical, enveloped virions with a diameter of about 150 nm carrying a non-segmented single negative-stranded RNA (ssRNA) of 15,690 nucleotides coding for eight proteins (da Fontoura Budaszewski et al. 2016). The RNA codes for eight transcription units:
The outer layer is made up of the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) transmembrane glycoproteins which are lined by the matrix (M) protein. The main function of the H and F proteins is to facilitate CDV entry into canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells via CD150 (also signaling lymphocyte activation molecule - SLAM) (von Messling et al. 2006) and to epithelial cells via nectin-4 (Pratakpiriya et al. 2012).
The RNA is encapsulated by the nucleoprotein (N) and is joined by the phosphoprotein (P) and the polymerase (L) to form the ribonucleoprotein-complex (RNP). The P gene codes for the C and V proteins through use of an alternate open reading frame and RNA editing, respectively (Whelan SP et al. 2004, da Fontoura Budaszewski and von Messling 2016). The C and V proteins modulate the infectivity of CDV (von Messling et al. 2006).
When CDV infects a dog, first signs are generally a runny nose and a nervous disposition. In the acute stage, viruses are shed in all the animal's secretions. The next phase includes cutaneous rash, copious nasal and ocular discharge, conjunctivitis and anorexia. Ensuing gastrointestinal and respiratory problems are frequently accompanied by secondary bacterial infections and neurological disorders (Beineke et al. 2009). While the immune response may lead to improvements, virus may be retained in the lymphoid system, the central nervous system (CNS), and footpads. Severe CNS pathologies tend to result in mortality; those dogs that survive will have permanent neurological damage. Demyelinating leukoencephalitis is frequently seen at this stage (Ulrich et al. 2014).
Bio-Rad, the leading supplier of veterinary research antibodies, supplies 3 monoclonal antibodies, in purified format, reactive to canine distemper virus. Two of them, Mouse Anti-Canine Distemper Virus clone 7514 and 7515 are suitable for ELISA. The third, clone DV2-12, recognizes the CDV nucleoprotein and can be used in ELISA, western blotting, and for IHC on frozen and paraffin embedded tissue sections.
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