What is ELISA, procedures, types of ELISA,
detection options and results
The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a common laboratory technique which is used to measure the concentration of an analyte (usually antibodies or antigens) in solution.
The basic ELISA, or enzyme immunoassay (EIA), is distinguished from other antibody-based assays because separation of specific and non-specific interactions occurs via serial binding to a solid surface, usually a polystyrene multiwell plate, and because quantitative results can be achieved.
The steps of the ELISA result in a colored end product which correlates to the amount of analyte present in the original sample.
ELISAs are quick and simple to carry out, and since they are designed to rapidly handle a large numbers of samples in parallel, they are a very popular choice for the evaluation of various research and diagnostic targets. Figure 1 shows a typical ELISA result.
ELISAs were first developed in the early 1970s as a replacement for radioimmunoassays. They remain in wide use in their original format and in expanded formats with modifications that allow for multiple analytes per well, highly sensitive readouts, and direct cell-based output.
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