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CD14 antibody | MIL2

Mouse anti Pig CD14:FITC

Product Type
Monoclonal Antibody

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Datasheet Datasheet Datasheet
SDS Safety Datasheet SDS
F 0.1 mg loader
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Mouse anti Pig CD14, clone MIL2 recognizes porcine CD14. Clone MIL2 was clustered as porcine CD14 at the Third International Workshop on Swine Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens (Haverson et al. 2001) . Mouse anti Pig CD14, clone MIL2 immunoprecipitates a protein of ~50 kDa consistent with the expected apparent molecular weight of porcine CD14, and demonstrates the expected CD14 profile by dual labelling and competition assays. Further, pre-incubation of peripheral blood monocytes with MIL2 inhibits the binding of FITC labelled LPS, consistent with masking the CD14 LPS binding site (Thacker et al. 2001) .

Mouse anti pig CD14, clone MIL2 demonstrates staining of both monocytes and neutrophils in peripheral blood by flow cytometry with a similar expression pattern to the anti human CD14 clone TüK4, lymphocytes and eosinophils are negative for MIL2 staining (Zelnickova et al. 2007). Cloning and characterization of porcine CD14 indicates a high degree of both functional and structural conservation when compared to CD14 from other mammalian species, the gene maps to chromosome 2 and is expressed on a wide range of tissues in a manner consistent with expression on myeloid cells. (Petersen et al. 2007, Sanz et al. 2007).

Target Species
Species Cross-Reactivity
Target SpeciesCross Reactivity
N.B. Antibody reactivity and working conditions may vary between species.
Product Form
Purified IgG conjugated to Fluorescein Isothiocyanate Isomer 1 (FITC) - liquid
Purified IgG prepared by affinity chromatography on Protein A from tissue culture supernatant
Buffer Solution
Phosphate buffered saline
Preservative Stabilisers
0.09% sodium azide (NaN3)
1% bovine serum albumin
Porcine peripheral blood lymphocytes.
Approx. Protein Concentrations
IgG concentration 0.1mg/ml.
Fusion Partners
Spleen cells from immunized Balb/c mice were fused with cells from the P2-X63-Ag.653 mouse myeloma.
Max Ex/Em
Fluorophore Excitation Max (nm) Emission Max (nm)
FITC 490 525
For research purposes only
12 months from date of despatch

This product is shipped at ambient temperature. It is recommended to aliquot and store at -20°C on receipt. When thawed, aliquot the sample as needed. Keep aliquots at 2-8°C for short term use (up to 4 weeks) and store the remaining aliquots at -20°C.

Avoid repeated freezing and thawing as this may denature the antibody. Storage in frost-free freezers is not recommended. This product is photosensitive and should be protected from light.

This product has been reported to work in the following applications. This information is derived from testing within our laboratories, peer-reviewed publications or personal communications from the originators. Please refer to references indicated for further information. For general protocol recommendations, please visit the antibody protocols page.
Application Name Verified Min Dilution Max Dilution
Flow Cytometry
Where this product has not been tested for use in a particular technique this does not necessarily exclude its use in such procedures. Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrates the product for use in their own system using appropriate negative/positive controls.
Flow Cytometry
Use 10μl of the suggested working dilution to label 106 cells in 100μl

Description Product Code Applications Pack Size List Price Your Price Quantity
Mouse IgG2b Negative Control:FITC MCA691F F 100 Tests loader
List Price Your Price
Description Mouse IgG2b Negative Control:FITC

Source Reference

  1. Haverson, K. et al. (1994) Characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for monocytes, macrophages and granulocytes from porcine peripheral blood and mucosal tissues.
    J Immunol Methods. 170 (2): 233-45.

References for CD14 antibody

  1. Hauet, T. et al. (2000) Trimetazidine reduces renal dysfunction by limiting the cold ischemia/reperfusion injury in autotransplanted pig kidneys.
    J Am Soc Nephrol. 11: 138-48.
  2. Thacker, E. et al. (2001) Summary of workshop findings for porcine myelomonocytic markers.
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 80 (1-2): 93-109.
  3. Thorgersen, E.B. et al. (2010) CD14 inhibition efficiently attenuates early inflammatory and hemostatic responses in Escherichia coli sepsis in pigs.
    FASEB J. 24: 712-22.
  4. Goujon, J.M. et al. (2000) Influence of cold-storage conditions on renal function of autotransplanted large pig kidneys.
    Kidney Int. 58: 838-50.
  5. Li, Y. et al. (2014) Identification of apoptotic cells in the thymus of piglets infected with highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.
    Virus Res. 189: 29-33.
  6. Summerfield, A. et al. (2003) Porcine peripheral blood dendritic cells and natural interferon-producing cells.
    Immunology. 110: 440-9.
  7. Vanderheijden, N. et al. (2003) Involvement of sialoadhesin in entry of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus into porcine alveolar macrophages.
    J Virol. 77: 8207-15.
  8. Barratt-Due, A. et al. (2011) Ornithodoros moubata Complement Inhibitor Is an Equally Effective C5 Inhibitor in Pigs and Humans.
    J Immunol. 187: 4913-9.
  9. View The Latest Product References
  10. Hauet, T. et al. (2002) Polyethylene glycol reduces the inflammatory injury due to cold ischemia/reperfusion in autotransplanted pig kidneys.
    Kidney Int. 62: 654-67.
  11. Kapetanovic, R. et al. (2012) Pig bone marrow-derived macrophages resemble human macrophages in their response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide.
    J Immunol. 188: 3382-94.
  12. Thorgersen, E.B. et al. (2009) Inhibition of complement and CD14 attenuates the Escherichia coli-induced inflammatory response in porcine whole blood.
    Infect Immun. 77: 725-32.
  13. Zelnickova, P. et al. (2007) Intracellular cytokine detection by flow cytometry in pigs: fixation, permeabilization and cell surface staining.
    J Immunol Methods. 327: 18-29.
  14. Facci, M.R. et al. (2011) Stability of expression of reference genes in porcine peripheral blood mononuclear and dendritic cells.
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 141: 11-5.
  15. Koutná, I. et al. (2012) Flow Cytometry Analysis of Intracellular Protein
    In: Flow Cytometry - Recent Perspectives, Schmid, I. (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51.
  16. Facci, M.R. et al. (2010) A comparison between isolated blood dendritic cells and monocyte-derived dendritic cells in pigs.
    Immunology. 129: 396-405.
  17. Schierack, P. et al. (2009) Effects of Bacillus cereus var. toyoi on immune parameters of pregnant sows.
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol.127: 26-37.
  18. Lundeland, B. et al. (2011) Severe gunshot injuries in a porcine model: impact on central markers of innate immunity.
    Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 55: 28-34.
  19. Thorgersen, E.B. et al. (2008) Cyanobacterial LPS antagonist (CyP)-a novel and efficient inhibitor of Escherichia coli LPS-induced cytokine response in the pig.
    Mol Immunol. 45: 3553-7.
  20. Schierack, P. et al. (2007) Bacillus cereus var. toyoi enhanced systemic immune response in piglets.
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 118: 1-11.
  21. Ondrackova, P. et al. (2012) Interaction of porcine neutrophils with different strains of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.
    Vet Microbiol. 160: 108-16.
  22. Ondrackova, P. et al. (2013) Phenotypic characterisation of the monocyte subpopulations in healthy adult pigs and Salmonella-infected piglets by seven-colour flow cytometry.
    Res Vet Sci. 94 (2): 240-5.
  23. Vicenova, M. et al. (2014) Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of biologically active phospholipids with anti-neoplastic potential in porcine model.
    BMC Complement Altern Med. 14: 339.
  24. Alvarez, B. et al. (2015) Phenotypic and functional heterogeneity of CD169+ and CD163+ macrophages from porcine lymph nodes and spleen.
    Dev Comp Immunol. 44: 44-9.
  25. Moffat, L. et al. (2014) Development and characterisation of monoclonal antibodies reactive with porcine CSF1R (CD115).
    Dev Comp Immunol. 47 (1): 123-8.
  26. Kyrova K et al. (2014) The response of porcine monocyte derived macrophages and dendritic cells to Salmonella typhimurium and lipopolysaccharide.
    BMC Vet Res. 10: 244.
  27. Nguyen, D.N. et al. (2016) Oral antibiotics increase blood neutrophil maturation and reduce bacteremia and necrotizing enterocolitis in the immediate postnatal period of preterm pigs.
    Innate Immun. 22 (1): 51-62.
  28. Egge, K.H. et al. (2015) Organ inflammation in porcine Escherichia coli sepsis is markedly attenuated by combined inhibition of C5 and CD14.
    Immunobiology. 220 (8): 999-1005.
  29. Liu J et al. (2016) The Role of Porcine Monocyte Derived Dendritic Cells (MoDC) in the Inflammation Storm Caused by Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 Infection.
    PLoS One. 11 (3): e0151256.
  30. Singleton, H. et al. (2016) Establishing Porcine Monocyte-Derived Macrophage and Dendritic Cell Systems for Studying the Interaction with PRRSV-1.
    Front Microbiol. 7: 832.
  31. Zemankova, N. et al. (2016) Bovine lactoferrin free of lipopolysaccharide can induce a proinflammatory response of macrophages.
    BMC Vet Res. 12 (1): 251.
  32. Auray, G. et al. (2016) Characterization and Transcriptomic Analysis of Porcine Blood Conventional and Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Reveals Striking Species-Specific Differences.
    J Immunol. 197 (12): 4791-806.
  33. Kavanová L et al. (2017) Concurrent infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and Haemophilus parasuis in two types of porcine macrophages: apoptosis, production of ROS and formation of multinucleated giant cells.
    Vet Res. 48 (1): 28.
  34. Bacou, E. et al. (2017) β2-adrenoreceptor stimulation dampens the LPS-induced M1 polarization in pig macrophages.
    Dev Comp Immunol. 76: 169-76.
  35. Yang, G. et al. (2017) Characterizing porcine invariant natural killer T cells: A comparative study with NK cells and T cells.
    Dev Comp Immunol. 76: 343-351.
  36. Uitterdijk, A. et al. (2017) Time course of VCAM-1 expression in reperfused myocardial infarction in swine and its relation to retention of intracoronary administered bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells.
    PLoS One. 12 (6): e0178779.
  37. Sánchez, E.G. et al. (2017) Phenotyping and susceptibility of established porcine cells lines to African Swine Fever Virus infection and viral production.
    Sci Rep. 7 (1): 10369.
  38. Fernández-Caballero, T. et al. (2018) Phenotypic and functional characterization of porcine bone marrow monocyte subsets.
    Dev Comp Immunol. 81: 95-104.
  39. Sautter, C.A. et al. (2018) Phenotypic and functional modulations of porcine macrophages by interferons and interleukin-4.
    Dev Comp Immunol. 84: 181-92.
  40. López, E. et al. (2019) Identification of very early inflammatory markers in a porcine myocardial infarction model.
    BMC Vet Res. 15 (1): 91.
  41. Forner, R. et al. (2021) Distribution difference of colostrum-derived B and T cells subsets in gilts and sows.
    PLoS One. 16 (5): e0249366.
  42. Skovdal, S.M. et al. (2019) Inhaled nebulized glatiramer acetate against Gram-negative bacteria is not associated with adverse pulmonary reactions in healthy, young adult female pigs.
    PLoS One. 14 (10): e0223647.
  43. Vreman, S. et al. (2018) Neonatal porcine blood derived dendritic cell subsets show activation after TLR2 or TLR9 stimulation.
    Dev Comp Immunol. 84: 361-70.
  44. Lau, C. et al. (2020) NHDL, a recombinant VL/VH hybrid antibody control for IgG2/4 antibodies.
    MAbs. 12 (1): 1686319.
  45. Nielsen, O.L. et al. (2022) A porcine model of subcutaneous Staphylococcus aureus infection: a pilot study.
    APMIS. 130 (7): 359-70.
  46. Melgoza-González, A.E. et al. (2022) Antigen Targeting of Porcine Skin DEC205+ Dendritic Cells
    Vaccines. 10 (5): 684.
  47. Štěpánová, H. et al. (2022) Characterization of Porcine Monocyte-Derived Macrophages Cultured in Serum-Reduced Medium.
    Biology (Basel). 11(10):1457.
  48. Monguió-Tortajada, M. et al. (2022) Acellular cardiac scaffolds enriched with MSC-derived extracellular vesicles limit ventricular remodelling and exert local and systemic immunomodulation in a myocardial infarction porcine model.
    Theranostics. 12 (10): 4656-70.
  49. Bettin, L. et al. (2023) Co-stimulation by TLR7/8 ligand R848 modulates IFN-γ production of porcine γδ T cells in a microenvironment-dependent manner.
    Dev Comp Immunol. 138: 104543.
  50. Haach, V. et al. (2023) A polyvalent virosomal influenza vaccine induces broad cellular and humoral immunity in pigs.
    Virol J. 20 (1): 181.
  51. Li, J. et al. (2024) Single-cell transcriptomic analysis reveals transcriptional and cell subpopulation differences between human and pig immune cells.
    Genes Genomics. 46 (3): 303-22.
  52. Álvarez, B. et al. (2023) Porcine Macrophage Markers and Populations: An Update.
    Cells. 12 (16): 2103.
  53. Lawrence, J. et al. (2024) Porcine Monocyte DNA Traps Formed during Infection with Pathogenic Clostridioides difficile Strains.
    Pathogens. 13 (3): 228.
  54. Auray, G. et al. (2020) High-Resolution Profiling of Innate Immune Responses by Porcine Dendritic Cell Subsets in vitro and in vivo.
    Front Immunol. 11: 1429.
  55. Nieto-Pelegrín, E. et al. (2020) Porcine CLEC12B is expressed on alveolar macrophages and blood dendritic cells.
    Dev Comp Immunol. 111: 103767.
  56. Lawrence, J. et al. (2024) Porcine Monocyte DNA Traps Formed during Infection with Pathogenic Clostridioides difficile Strains
    Pathogens. 13 (3): 228.
  57. Jarosova, R. et al. (2022) Cytokine expression by CD163+ monocytes in healthy and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae-infected pigs.
    Res Vet Sci. 152: 1-9.
  58. Waddell, L.A. et al. (2018) ADGRE1 (EMR1, F4/80) Is a Rapidly-Evolving Gene Expressed in Mammalian Monocyte-Macrophages.
    Front Immunol. 9: 2246.

Further Reading

  1. Piriou-Guzylack, L. (2008) Membrane markers of the immune cells in swine: an update.
    Vet Res. 39: 54.
  2. Petersen, C.B. et al. (2007) Cloning, characterization and mapping of porcine CD14 reveals a high conservation of mammalian CD14 structure, expression and locus organization.
    Dev Comp Immunol. 31: 729-37.
  3. Sanz, G. et al. (2007) Molecular cloning, chromosomal location, and expression analysis of porcine CD14.
    Dev Comp Immunol. 31(7):738-47.

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