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Recombinant Human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factoris a highly purified preparation of E. coli produced human GM-CSF.

GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor) is a haematopoietic growth factor which exists in both glycosylated and non-glycosylated biologically active forms, and stimulates the development of granulocytes, macrophages, early megakaryocytes and eosinophil progenitor cells. The ability of recombinant GM-CSF to increase haematopoietic cell recovery has become a focus area in the therapeutic treatment of patients following bone marrow transplantation.

Target Species
Product Form
Purified recombinant protein - lyophilized
Reconstitute with 0.2 ml distilled water. Care should be taken during reconstitution as the protein may appear as a film at the bottom of the vial. Bio-Rad recommend that the vial is gently mixed after reconstitution. For extended storage, the addition of 0.1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) is recommended.
Purified recombinant GM-CSF expressed in E. coli
Preservative Stabilisers
10mM Sodium citrate pH3.5
Carrier Free
The ED50 as determined by the dose-dependent stimulation of the proliferation of human TF-1 cells is ≤ 0.1 ng/ml, corresponding to a specific activity of ≥ 1 x 107 units/mg.
Approx. Protein Concentrations
0.1 mg/ml after reconstitution
Protein Molecular Weight
14.6 kDa (128 amino acid residues)
Endotoxin Level
< 1.0 EU/ug
For research purposes only
Guaranteed for 3 months from the date of reconstitution or until the date of expiry, whichever comes first. Please see label for expiry date.

Prior to reconstitution store at -20oC. Following reconstitution store at -20oC.

This product should be stored undiluted.

Storage in frost-free freezers is not recommended. Avoid repeated freezing and thawing as this may denature the protein. Should this product contain a precipitate we recommend microcentrifugation before use.

This product has been reported to work in the following applications. This information is derived from testing within our laboratories, peer-reviewed publications or personal communications from the originators. Please refer to references indicated for further information. For general protocol recommendations, please visit the antibody protocols page.
Application Name Verified Min Dilution Max Dilution
ELISA 0.2 0.4ng/well
Functional Assays 1.0ng/ml
Western Blotting 1.5 3.0ng/lane
Where this product has not been tested for use in a particular technique this does not necessarily exclude its use in such procedures. Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrates the product for use in their own system using appropriate negative/positive controls.

References for GM-CSF

  1. Radford, D.J. et al. (2010) Dehdyroepiandrosterone sulfate directly activates protein kinase C-beta to increase human neutrophil superoxide generation.
    Mol Endocrinol. 24: 813-21.
  2. Olivetta, E. et al. (2005) HIV-1 Nef regulates the release of superoxide anions from human macrophages.
    Biochem J. 390: 591-602.
  3. Abediankenari, S, & Ghasemi, M. (2009) Generation of immune inhibitory dendritic cells and CD4+T regulatory cells inducing by TGF-beta.
    Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 8: 25-30
  4. Abediankenari, S. et al. (2011) Human Leukocyte Antigen-G Expression on Dendritic Cells Induced by Transforming Growth Factor-Beta1 and CD4+ T Cells Proliferation.
    Iran Biomed J. 15: 1-5.
  5. Manfredi, F. et al. (2016) The CD8+ T Cell-Mediated Immunity Induced by HPV-E6 Uploaded in Engineered Exosomes Is Improved by ISCOMATRIX™ Adjuvant.
    Vaccines (Basel). 4 (4): pii: E42.
  6. Anticoli, S. et al. (2016) Engineered exosomes boost the HCV NS3-specific CD8+ T lymphocyte immunity in humans.
    Trials Vaccinol. 5: 105-10.
  7. Chiozzini, C. et al. (2017) Trans-dissemination of exosomes from HIV-1-infected cells fosters both HIV-1 trans-infection in resting CD4+ T lymphocytes and reactivation of the HIV-1 reservoir.
    Arch Virol. 162 (9): 2565-77.

Functional Assays

Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor
Entrez Gene
GO Terms
GO:0005125 cytokine activity
GO:0005129 granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor binding
GO:0005615 extracellular space
GO:0006955 immune response
GO:0008083 growth factor activity
GO:0010744 positive regulation of macrophage derived foam cell differentiation
GO:0032747 positive regulation of interleukin-23 production
GO:0042523 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat5 protein
GO:0045740 positive regulation of DNA replication
GO:0045918 negative regulation of cytolysis


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