TGF Alpha

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Recombinant Human TGF Alpha

Product Type
Recombinant Protein
Product CodeApplicationsDatasheetMSDSPack SizeList PriceQuantity
PHP291A FN 10 µg
PHP291 FN 100 µg
Recombinant human transforming growth factor (TGF) alpha

Growth factors such as TGF alpha and their respective receptors play a crucial role in regulating cell differentiation, proliferation and survival. TGF alpha stimulates cell proliferation and is expressed in a number of tissues including skin, colon, liver and kidney (Kumar et al. 1995).

TGF alpha is one of seven epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands (Singh et al. 2016). TGF alpha is synthesized in a precursor transmembrane format, which undergoes proteolytic cleavage to generate the mature extracellular soluble ligand (Singh et al. 2016). Membrane bound TGF alpha is also biologically active and induces juxtacrine signaling by binding to EGFR on neighboring cells (Schneider and Wolf 2008). Upon TGF alpha binding, the EGFR dimerizes resulting in its phosphorylation and kinase domain activation. EGFR phosphorylation activates cell signaling pathways, such as Raf/MEK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways (Wang et al. 2012).

Overexpression of TGF alpha is observed in numerous cancer types including triple negative breast cancer and prostate cancer. TGF alpha plays a key role in proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells (Giricz et al. 2013, Qin et al. 2014). In addition to tumors, increased TGF alpha levels have been observed in the gastric mucosa of patients suffering from the hyper-proliferative stomach disorder, Ménétrier’s disease (MD), which has resulted in the implication of TGF alpha in the pathogenesis of MD (Huh et al. 2015).

The proliferative effect of TGF alpha was demonstrated by performing a cell proliferation assay with Balb/3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. The expected ED50 for this effect is 0.1-1.0 ng/ml.

Product Details

Target Species
Human
Product Form
Purified recombinant protein - lyophilized
Reconstitution
Pack Size: 10 µg
Centrifuge vial prior to reconstitution. Reconstitute to 100 μg/ml by adding 100 μl ddH2O. Care should be taken during reconstitution as the protein may appear as a film at the bottom of the vial. Bio-Rad recommend that the vial is gently mixed after reconstitution. Do not vortex.
Pack Size: 100 µg
Centrifuge vial prior to reconstitution. Reconstitute to 100 μg/ml by adding 1 ml ddH2O. Care should be taken during reconstitution as the protein may appear as a film at the bottom of the vial. Bio-Rad recommend that the vial is gently mixed after reconstitution. Do not vortex.
Preparation
Recombinant protein expressed in E.coli and purified by ion exchange chromatography
Buffer Solution
50 mM Tris-HCl, 0.15 M Sodium Chloride
Preservative Stabilisers
1.0% Trehalose
Activity
Confirmed by performing an alamarBlue® based cell proliferation assay using human breast cancer cells. The expected ED50 for this effect is 0.1 - 1 ng/ml.
Purity
≥98% determined by silver staining of SDS-PAGE gel
Approx. Protein Concentrations
100 μg/ml after reconstitution
Protein Molecular Weight
5.5 kDa
Endotoxin Level
<1 EU/μg

Storage Information

Storage
Prior to reconstitution store at -20oC. Following reconstitution store at -20oC.

This product should be stored undiluted.

Storage in frost-free freezers is not recommended. Avoid repeated freezing and thawing as this may denature the protein. Should this product contain a precipitate we recommend microcentrifugation before use.
Shelf Life
3 months from date of reconstitution. Please see label for expiry date.

More Information

UniProt
P01135 Related reagents
Entrez Gene
TGFA Related reagents
GO Terms
GO:0005886 plasma membrane
GO:0000187 activation of MAPK activity
GO:0016021 integral to membrane
GO:0004708 MAP kinase kinase activity
GO:0004871 signal transducer activity
GO:0005154 epidermal growth factor receptor binding
GO:0045741 positive regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor activity
GO:0005615 extracellular space
GO:0008083 growth factor activity
GO:0008283 cell proliferation
GO:0009986 cell surface
GO:0045840 positive regulation of mitosis
GO:0050679 positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation
GO:0051781 positive regulation of cell division
Acknowledgements
alamarBlue is a trademark of Trek Diagnostic Systems, Inc and is manufactured for Bio-Rad by Trek Diagnostic Systems. U.S. patent 5,501,959
Regulatory
For research purposes only

Applications of TGF Alpha

This product has been reported to work in the following applications. This information is derived from testing within our laboratories, peer-reviewed publications or personal communications from the originators. Please refer to references indicated for further information. For general protocol recommendations, please visit the antibody protocols page.
Application Name Verified Min Dilution Max Dilution
Functional Assays
Where this product has not been tested for use in a particular technique this does not necessarily exclude its use in such procedures. Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrates the product for use in their own system using appropriate negative/positive controls.

Useful Reagents Available

Description Product Code Pack Size Applications List Price Quantity
Sheep anti Human TGF Alpha 9129-7995 0.5 mg E
alamarBlue® BUF012A 25 ml E FN IF
Recombinant Human TGF Alpha PHP037 0.1 mg E FN WB

Product Specific References

Further Reading

  1. Giricz, O. et al. (2013) TACE-dependent TGFα shedding drives triple-negative breast cancer cell invasion.
    Int J Cancer. 133 (11): 2587-95.
  2. Huh, W.J. et al. (2016) Ménétrier's Disease: Its Mimickers and Pathogenesis.
    J Pathol Transl Med. 50 (1): 10-6.
  3. Kumar, V. et al. (1995) Transforming growth factor alpha.
    Cell Biol Int. 19 (5): 373-88.
  4. Qin, W. et al. (2014) MicroRNA-124 regulates TGF-α-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human prostate cancer cells.
    Int J Oncol. 45 (3): 1225-31.
  5. Schneider, M.R. & Wolf, E. (2009) The epidermal growth factor receptor ligands at a glance.
    J Cell Physiol. 218 (3): 460-6.
  6. Singh, B. et al. (2016) EGF receptor ligands: recent advances.
    F1000Res. 5Sep 08 [Epub ahead of print].
  7. Wang, C. et al. (2012) Transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα) regulates granulosa cell tumor (GCT) cell proliferation and migration through activation of multiple pathways.
    PLoS One. 7 (11): e48299.