Browsing Modes for Business Users

CD28 antibody | YTH913.12

Rat anti Human CD28:StarBright UltraViolet 575

Product Type
Monoclonal Antibody

Product Code Applications Pack Size List Price Your Price Qty
Datasheet Datasheet Datasheet
SDS Safety Datasheet SDS
F 100 Tests/0.5ml loader
List Price Your Price

Rat anti Human CD28 antibody, clone YTH913.12 recognizes human CD28, a ~44 kDa single pass type 1 trans-membrane protein expressed as a homodimer on a major subset of human T-cells (Thompson et al. 1989), responsible for activation of these cells via interaction with the TCR. CD28 is involved in the tuning of the T-cell for activation via TCR, lowering the threshold for activation from around 8000 triggered TCRs to approximately 1500 (Viola et al.1996).

CD28 along with CD152, also known as CTLA-4 acts as a co-receptor for the co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 (Azuma et al. 1993). CD28 offers a positive stimulatory role on ligation of CD80 and CD86 while CTLA-4 offers a negative feedback signal preventing CD28 mediated T-cell activation of CD86 (Krummel et al. 1995).

Rat anti human CD28, clone YTH913.12 has been reported to recognize an epitope of CD28 expressed by NK cells, which is not recognized by other anti human CD28 clones such as 9.3 and CD28.2 (Galea-Lauri et al 1999.) Other reports however have failed to demonstrate CD28 staining on peripheral blood derived NK cells using clone YTH913.12 (Wilson et al. 1999).

Target Species
Product Form
Purified IgG conjugated to StarBright UltraViolet 575 - liquid
Purified IgG prepared by affinity chromatography on Protein G from tissue culture supernatant
Buffer Solution
Phosphate buffered saline
Preservative Stabilisers
0.09% Sodium Azide (NaN3)
1% Bovine Serum Albumin
0.1% Pluronic F68
0.1% PEG 3350
0.05% Tween 20
Human peripheral blood T-cells.
Fusion Partners
Spleen cells from an immunized DA rat were fused with cells of the Y3/Ag 1.2.3 rat myeloma cell line.
Max Ex/Em
Fluorophore Excitation Max (nm) Emission Max (nm)
StarBright UltraViolet 575 340 569
For research purposes only
12 months from date of despatch
This product is covered by U.S. Patent No. 10,150,841 and related U.S. and foreign counterparts

Store at +4°C. DO NOT FREEZE.
This product should be stored undiluted.

This product has been reported to work in the following applications. This information is derived from testing within our laboratories, peer-reviewed publications or personal communications from the originators. Please refer to references indicated for further information. For general protocol recommendations, please visit the antibody protocols page.
Application Name Verified Min Dilution Max Dilution
Flow Cytometry Neat
Where this product has not been tested for use in a particular technique this does not necessarily exclude its use in such procedures. Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrates the product for use in their own system using appropriate negative/positive controls.
Flow Cytometry
Use 5ul of the suggested working dilution to label 106 cells in 100ul. Best practices suggest a 5 minutes centrifugation at 6,000g prior to sample application.

How to Use the Spectraviewer

Watch the Tool Tutorial Video ▸
  • Start by selecting the application you are interested in, with the option to select an instrument from the drop down menu or create a customized instrument
  • Select the fluorophores or fluorescent proteins you want to include in your panel to check compatibility
  • Select the lasers and filters you wish to include
  • Select combined or multi-laser view to visualize the spectra

Description Product Code Applications Pack Size List Price Your Price Quantity
Human Seroblock BUF070A F 50 Test
List Price Your Price
Description Human Seroblock
Human Seroblock BUF070B F 200 Test
List Price Your Price
Description Human Seroblock

References for CD28 antibody

  1. Reiter, C. (1989) Cluster Report: CD28 in Leucocyte Typing IV: White Cell Differentiation Antigens. Edited by Knapp, W., Dorken, B., Gilks, W.R., Rieber, E.P., Schmidt, R.E., Stein, H. and von dem Borne, A.E.G.Kr.
    Oxford University Press. pp 352-3.
  2. McLeod, J.D. et al. (1998) Activation of human T cells with superantigen (staphylococcal enterotoxin B) and CD28 confers resistance to apoptosis via CD95.
    J Immunol. 160: 2072-9.
  3. Galea-Lauri, J. et al. (1999) Expression of a variant of CD28 on a subpopulation of human NK cells: implications for B7-mediated stimulation of NK cells.
    J Immunol. 163 (1): 62-70.
  4. Wilson, J.L. et al. (1999) NK cell triggering by the human costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86.
    J Immunol. 163: 4207-12.
  5. Costa, C. et al. (2002) Human NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity triggered by CD86 and Gal alpha 1,3-Gal is inhibited in genetically modified porcine cells.
    J Immunol. 168: 3808-16.
  6. Ponchel, F. et al. (2002) Dysregulated lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
    Blood. 100: 4550-6.
  7. Blanco, B. et al. (2003) Induction of human T lymphocyte cytotoxicity and inhibition of tumor growth by tumor-specific diabody-based molecules secreted from gene-modified bystander cells.
    J Immunol. 171: 1070-7.
  8. Johnston, A. et al. (2004) Peripheral blood T cell responses to keratin peptides that share sequences with streptococcal M proteins are largely restricted to skin-homing CD8(+) T cells.
    Clin Exp Immunol. 138 (1): 83-93.
  9. View The Latest Product References
  10. Goodier, M.R. and Londei, M. (2004) CD28 is not directly involved in the response of human CD3- CD56+ natural killer cells to lipopolysaccharide: a role for T cells.
    Immunology. 111: 384-90.
  11. Kropf, P. et al. (2007) Arginase activity mediates reversible T cell hyporesponsiveness in human pregnancy.
    Eur J Immunol. 37: 935-45.
  12. Gabdoulkhakova, A. et al. (2007) High rate of mutation reporter gene inactivation during human T cell proliferation.
    Immunogenetics. 59: 135-43.
  13. Pridgeon, C. et al. (2011) Regulation of IL-17 in chronic inflammation in the human lung.
    Clin Sci (Lond). 120: 515-24.
  14. Litjens, N.H. et al. (2011) Identification of Circulating Human Antigen-Reactive CD4+FOXP3+ Natural Regulatory T Cells.
    J Immunol. 188: 1083-90.
  15. Svensson-Arvelund, J. et al. (2015) The human fetal placenta promotes tolerance against the semiallogeneic fetus by inducing regulatory T cells and homeostatic M2 macrophages.
    J Immunol. 194 (4): 1534-44.
  16. Hasib, L. et al. (2016) Functional and homeostatic defects of regulatory T cells in patients with coronary artery disease.
    J Intern Med. 279 (1): 63-77.
  17. Siska, E.K. et al. (2017) Generation of an immortalized mesenchymal stem cell line producing a secreted biosensor protein for glucose monitoring.
    PLoS One. 12 (9): e0185498.
  18. Hellberg, S. et al. (2021) Progesterone Dampens Immune Responses in In Vitro Activated CD4+ T Cells and Affects Genes Associated With Autoimmune Diseases That Improve During Pregnancy.
    Front Immunol. 12: 672168.
  19. Zenere, A. et al. (2023) Prominent epigenetic and transcriptomic changes in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells during and after pregnancy in women with multiple sclerosis and controls.
    J Neuroinflammation. 20 (1): 98.

Flow Cytometry

Functional Assays

Entrez Gene



If you cannot find the batch/lot you are looking for please contact our technical support team for assistance.

View more products with CD28 specificity

Please Note: All Products are "FOR RESEARCH PURPOSES ONLY"

View all Anti-Human Products
Please note